Dark Matter Monsters Or A Change In The Laws Of Physics?

There is a massive mystery in the universe, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Nobody knows what these evil things could be or that they are proof that the universe’s laws we have made up are total rubbish. The dark stuff does sound a bit hellish but that’s just a name and a bit inappropriate as really it’s just not visible i.e.it’s invisible.

Dark energy is the name given to an unexplained force that is drawing galaxies away from each other, against the pull of gravity, at an accelerated rate. Dark energy is a bit like anti-gravity, where gravity pulls things together dark energy tugs them apart.

How can astronomers be so certain of something they have never seen? The answer comes from observations of how stars and galaxies move, studies that have been going on for more than 50 years. Within spiral galaxies, individual stars and clouds of gas are orbiting faster than they should if they were only being affected by the gravity of the galaxys visible matter. The same is true for clusters of galaxies, the motions of individual galaxies cant be explained by the gravity of what astronomers can see.

To explain these observations, astronomers have deduced that galaxies are surrounded by vast halos of a different, unseen kind of matter.

Representation of Dark Matter

Representation of Dark Matter

If you could see dark matter, say astronomers, most galaxies, including our own Milky Way, would appear 10 times larger than they do in telescopes. All the known stars, galaxies, planets, and clouds of gas and dust are just a small fraction of whats out there.

The first person to come up with a theory on dark matter was a Swiss astrophysicist in 1933. Fred Zwicky was studying the Coma cluster of galaxies, a group of individual galaxies smothered in a big hot gas cloud,  when he discovered evidence of unseen mass.

It was determined that the entire sum of matter in the universe, the physical universe of stars and planets and the like, was only 0.4 percent of the total mass of the universe. A further 3.6 percent was made up of interstellar gas. Dark matter was determined to fill 23 percent of the total mass of the universe, leaving the mysterious dark energy to fill the remaining 73 percent.

Fred Zwicky

Fred Zwicky

This estimate proved very accurate and WMAP provided proof of dark matter and dark energys existence. WMAP’s complete look at the universe found that dark matter makes up 23.3% (to within 1.3%)  of the universe and dark energy makes up 72.1% of the universe (to within 1.5%).

The very origin of the term dark matter leads many to consider it simply a label for the unknown. Is there only one type of matter that is “dark matter”, or are their many forms of matter that are unobservable to humans, or an infinite amount? Scientists and astronomers continue to use the label with the understanding that they are not one hundred percent sure of what the label itself actually means.

Some people think it is just ordinary matter that is too cold or sparse to be seen optically whereas other people think it is some type of as yet undefined exotic matter.  If it is just too cold to be seen then there’s just no point talking about it until we can get something to sense it. But if it is exotic matter then what could it be?

A theory that has been around a long time is that dark matter is made out of WIMPS. A good name but it does not reflect the character of this type of WIMP. A WIMP is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle. These particles are not weak as the name suggests but very strong and pass through matter. At the moment a million of these particles could be passing through your finger.

Universe Contents

Universe Contents

WIMPS make up about 90% of dark matter so the big brains think. The other 10% could be made of MACHO’s & neutrinos.

Massive astrophysical compact halo object, wow!, or MACHO, is a general name for any kind of astronomical body such as neutron stars or brown dwarfs that might explain the presence of dark matter in galaxy halos. A MACHO is a body composed of normal baryonic matter, which emits little or no radiation and drifts through interstellar space not part of any solar system, minding it's own business.

Another theory involving undetected particles is that dark matter is made of subatomic particles called Axions. Axions are many times lighter than electrons and have no electric charge. One of the main differences between WIMPs and axions is their mass. Therefore, the difference between the two theories (WIMPs or axions) is that dark matter is either made of a large number of light particles (axions) or a smaller number of heavier particles (WIMPs).

One theory suggests that if two lingering particles of dark matter collide, they should annihilate to create an ordinary particle and an antiparticle, such as an electron and a positron, which can be observed. Those particles should emerge with an energy determined by the mass of the dark energy particles, leading to a sharp peak in the energy spectrum of electrons and positrons from space.

so many ideas and theories exist. Perhaps  space is curved, and can be (and has been) compared to a fabric, this could ask the question that space itself could be made of dark matter. That could bring on all sorts of discoveries.

Perhaps scientists dont entirely understand the way gravity works, perhaps Isaac Newtons famous law of gravitation needs some revising. Einstein revolutionised science and I don’t think that he is the final word, there could be a revolution on the way as dark matter and dark energy challenge the way we think. For more try here.

The large hadron collider

The large hadron collider

What if Dark Matter is just a by product of a Black Hole? Black holes take in matter, so where does it all go? Perhaps black holes eject stuff that we don’t know about yet. It would have to be a completely different type of matter but who knows?

there is a race to find what dark matter actually is. The FERMI gamma ray telescope is studying lots of things and one of them is dark matter. PAMELA  space observatory is also on the hunt. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is a bit different being underground but is looking for the same thing.

As early as this October, the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, could provide the much-awaited breakthrough by creating dark-matter right here on Earth. Scientists could then learn about the properties of these particles, starting with their masses for instance, and see whether they can produce the effects hinted at by Fermi and PAMELA.

There is a theory of supersymmetry that suggests that all known particles have, as yet undetected, superpartners. If they exist, the LHC should find them and very soon.

Well, it looks like dark matter and dark energy may not remain dark for very much longer and may create a new age of physics. It may release some laws that may explain a lot of other things and also help us to get around the universe. Let’s hope so.

Phantom Menace To Dark Matter

Signals could be from dark matter

Dark matter may have ripped up early universe

Join the forum discussion on this post - (1) Posts
Bookmark and Share
12 Comments Post a Comment
  1. Sean says:

    Nice post there.

    I was reading up about dark matter and dark energy a while ago and I found it very interesting.

    This post gave a better insight into what I was reading before so kudos to you.

    Just so you know I will be subscribing to your RSS feed.

  2. chrdann says:

    It is nice to know I am writing the right thing.

    Thanks for subscribing!

  3. Bruceleeeowe says:

    Dark matter and dark both are unresolved yet. LHC haven’t helped still. It needs more theories.

  4. [...] Extra-dimensional beings but not Gods although they may seem like it to type 0. The Star Trek character Q  would fit into this categoryr. There is possible harnessing of Dark Energy. [...]

  5. Dov Henis says:

    On The Origin Of Origins

    Dark Matter-Energy And “Higgs”?
    Energy-Mass Superposition
    The Fractal Oneness Of The Universe
    All Earth Life Creates and Maintains Genes

    A. On Energy, Mass, Gravity, Galaxies Clusters AND Life, A Commonsensible Recapitulation

    The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics, which is the fractal oneness of the universe.

    Astronomically there are two physics. A classical physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.

    The onset of big-bang’s inflation, the cataclysmic resolution of the Original Superposition, started gravity, with formation – BY DISPERSION – of galactic clusters that behave as classical Newtonian bodies and continuously reconvert their original pre-inflation masses back to energy, thus fueling the galactic clusters expansion, and with endless quantum-within-classical intertwined evolutions WITHIN the clusters in attempt to delay-resist this reconversion.

    B. Updated Life’s Manifest May 2009

    All Earth life creates and maintains Genes. Genes, genomes, cellular organisms – All create and maintain genes.

    For Nature, Earth’s biosphere is one of the many ways of temporarily constraining an amount of ENERGY within a galaxy within a galactic cluster, for thus avoiding, as long as possible, spending this particularly constrained amount as part of the fuel that maintains the clusters expansion.

    Genes are THE Earth’s organisms and ALL other organisms are their temporary take-offs.

    For Nature genes are genes are genes. None are more or less important than the others. Genes and their take-offs, all Earth organisms, are temporary energy packages and the more of them there are the more enhanced is the biosphere, Earth’s life, Earth’s temporary storage of constrained energy. This is the origin, the archetype, of selected modes of survival.

    The early genes came into being by solar energy and lived a very long period solely on direct solar energy. Metabolic energy, the indirect exploitation of solar energy, evolved at a much later phase in the evolution of Earth’s biosphere.

    However, essentially it is indeed so. All Earth life, all organisms, create and maintain the genes. Genes, genomes, cellular organisms – all create and maintain genes.

    Dov Henis
    (Comments from 22nd century)

  6. Xavier Terri says:

    A change in the laws of physics

    Teoría Conectada: The best physics theory since 1687

    The new Copernican revolution

    I read Lee Smolin’s book ‘Las dudas de la física en el siglo XXI’, 2007, Ed. Crítica. Wonderful. I have seen that Lee Smolin are looking for a new big idea, the fundamental simply idea for the progress and unification of physics. Seems that Smolin got the conviction that both quantum mechanics and GR theorys don’t understand the deep nature of time (page 355). It is right for GR unless.

    Here is what i say:
    No more Lorentz’s Transformations. The new alternatives transformations (’relational transformations’) are deduced on ‘LA PARADOJA DE LOS GEMELOS DE LA TEORÍA DE LA RELATIVIDAD ESPECIAL DE EINSTEIN’, f.i., equations (22) and (23) with “C” and “D” given by (42) and (43) , pages (33) to (36). From them arises the ‘teoría relacional’, an alternative to special relativity.
    The generalitation of this ‘teoría relacional’, the unique possible classic alternative to GR, appears on ‘EXTRACTO DE LA TEORÍA CONECTADA’. 3 are the fundamental equations. (84), (171) and (172), pages (146) and (182). This 3=24 equations are necessary in order to eliminate the Newton-Einstein’s absolute space. There are not absolutes accelerations (neither absolutes velocities, of course).

    The DARK MATTER problem is solved in ‘Apéncice C’, page 205 (Exponential factor gets important at large distance from the center).

    What about a “quantum teoría conectada”? I believe that you can say something important about it.

    Xavier Terri
    Terrassa 2009 august 6

    P.D.: Smolin is completely certain when he tell that the great historic mistake comes from Descartes-Galileo (‘Las dudas de la física en el s.XXI’, pages 355-356). This great historic error is the Principle of Inertia (movement is a relational concept. It is completely false that the movement of ALL free bodies is a straight line. Some of them move, respect the SAME reference system, in a curved way. Spacetime metric defines a specific relationship betwen bodies and reference system.Pure evidence beyond the reason: at night, see the stars). Also, Principle of Inertia leads us to the inertial-non inertial dichotomy. Where is INVARIANCE of physical laws? (pages 45 on ‘Paradoja’ and 141, eq. (77), on ‘Teoría Conectada’).

  7. Dov Henis says:

    The Basic Implications Of E=Total[m(1 + D)]

    a recapitulation

    A. Its essential statement

    “Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time to the early hot dense “Big Bang” phase, using general relativity, yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past. At age 10^-35 seconds the Universe begins with a cataclysm that generates space and time, as well as all the matter and energy the Universe will ever hold.”

    E = Energy content of the universe
    m = mass content of the universe
    D = distance, Total = in all spatial directions, from the point of Big-Bang, of singularity’s energy-mass superposition

    At D=0, E was = m and both E and m were, together, all the energy and matter the Universe will ever hold. Since the onset of the cataclysm, E remains constant and m diminishes as D increases.
    The increase of D is the initial inflation, followed by the ongoing expansion, of what became the galactic clusters.

    At 10^-35 seconds, D was already a fraction of a second above zero. This is when gravity starts. This is what started gravity. At this instance starts the energetic space texture, starts the straining of the space texture, and starts the space-texture-memory, gravity, that most probably will eventually overcome expansion and initiate re-impansion back to singularity.

    B. Some of its further essential implications beyond Einstein-Hubble and re classical-quantum physics

    And again and again : “On The Origin Of Origins”
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/160/122.page#2753

    1. It promotes commonsensical scientific critical thinking beyond Einstein-Hubble.

    The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics, which is the fractal oneness of the universe.

    Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.

    The onset of big-bang’s inflation, the cataclysmic resolution of the Original Superposition, started gravity, with formation – BY DISPERSION – of galactic clusters that behave as classical Newtonian bodies and continuously reconvert their original pre-inflation masses back to energy, thus fueling the galactic clusters expansion, and with endless quantum-within-classical intertwined evolutions WITHIN the clusters in attempt to delay-resist this reconversion.

    2. There is no call, no need, for any dark energy. The energy of the universe is conserved. The mass of the universe is conserved in the form of energy, the energy fueling the clusters expansion. At the next universal singularity, at the next D = 0, there will again be E = m for a small fraction of a second…just wait and see…

    Following Newton (1) gravity is decreased when mass is decreased and (2) acceleration of a body is given by dividing the force acting upon it by its mass. By plain common sense the combination of those two ‘laws’ may explain the accelerating cosmic expansion of galaxy clusters and the laws that drive it, based on the E/ m/ D relationship suggested above..

    3. There is no call, no need, for a Higgs Particle.

    The resolution of energy-mass superposition is reverted when D = 0. Shockingly sad, but must be soberingly faced rationally.

    C. Its implications re the origin and nature of life beyond Darwin, re selection for survival

    For Nature, Earth’s biosphere is one of the many ways of temporarily constraining an amount of energy within a galaxy within a galactic cluster, for thus avoiding, as long as possible, spending this particularly constrained amount as part of the fuel that maintains the clusters expansion.

    Genes are THE Earth’s organisms and ALL other organisms are their temporary take-offs.

    For Nature genes are genes are genes. None are more or less important than the others. Genes and their take-offs, all Earth organisms, are temporary energy packages and the more of them there are the more enhanced is the biosphere, Earth’s life, Earth’s temporary storage of constrained energy. This is the origin, the archetype, of selected modes of survival.

    The early genes came into being by solar energy and lived a very long period solely on direct solar energy. Metabolic energy, the indirect exploitation of solar energy, evolved at a much later phase in the evolution of Earth’s biosphere.

    Dov Henis
    (Comments from 22nd century)
    Updated Life’s Manifest May 2009
    http://www.physforum.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=480&#entry412704
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/140/122.page#2321

  8. Brian Sallur says:

    Dark Energy” is the result of too little commonsense, and too much mathematics.

    It would make more sense to reach a conclusion that`
    All of the unlimited energy available to the Universe is contained with in the vacuum of Space

    It resides in a “potential form,” which if you think about it….is the only place to keep it so as to ensure it will remain in a stable and convenient form.
    It can then be extracted on demand
    ..
    This is how a star survives and continues to radiate energy.
    A star such as ours is the minimum capture area required to constantly interface with the “vacuum “of space.
    100% of available energy is locked up within the Universe it’s self.

    We don’t manufacture energy; we simply extract it, from this immutable source.
    Why is a sunspot black……because the energy for the solar flare was obtained above the surface of the Sun, and not from below its surface?

    Sadly, Astronomers, and galactic distances are greatest liars in the universe

  9. A small point. Fred Zwicky did his work on the Coma Cluster in 1933 not 1993! His conclusions on “missing matter” were largely verified by Vera Rubin, based on measuring the velocity curves in spiral galaxies. Her work was published in the early 1970s.

    The evidence for dark matter seems, to me, to be conclusive, especially when the gravitational lensing observations are taken into account. It does seem that a form of Cold Dark Matter is most likely as this fits well with cosmic inflation theory, but that is just my view.

  10. Chris Dann says:

    That’s a rather large point thanks!

    I think you might enjoy a podcast I posted by one of those scientist people here-

    http://www.weirdwarp.com/2009/09/best-of-the-web-dark-matter-energy-podcast/

  11. Brian Sallur says:

    The term DARK MATTER was coined because the academics could not live with knowledge that 99% of the energy in the Universe is invisible,
    immeasurable and only observable when the energy has been extracted from it’s source.

    The source of all our energies is stored in the vacuum of space as a potential energy, only.
    Whereon it is released on demand.

    How else could you store unlimited quantities
    of energies with complete stability.

    When energy is needed to be extracted from the Vacuum of space, the energy from the entire Universe is shared by a perfect phenomena called a Simultaneos Transition.

  12. Christy says:

    Our minecraft force op device has absolutely transformed the way minecraft servers work.
    An administration feels that they are the only versions that
    can handle their hosting server. They are bad! Together with the minecraft force op method, anyone can have entire command over the server and
    do with it, because you remember to. You can also kick away other administrative!

    my weblog … force op hack (Christy)

Leave a Reply




Archives

Categories